The sound of the water crashing along the shore. The bright aqua color grabs my attention at first glance. As I look around, there are different colors everywhere.
The oceans harbor a wide variety of living organisms, each exhibiting adaptations for survival in their particular marine niches. The relationship between structure and function in the living organisms studied this semester is the cells that they have in their body. The way that these creatures act, and hunt for food. Their body systems have critical functions, such as locomotion, reproduction, digestion, and circulation. All living things on Earth are composed of the same carbon based, molecular building blocks. All organisms are composed of cells. Organisms can be single celled or multicellular. Now comparing and contrasting members of the major marine animal phyla in terms of structure, adaptation, lifestyle, and evolutionary history is a list of animal phyla is a list of the major groups of animals usually classified as a phylum. A list of this type may be arranged alphabetically, but equally it might be arranged according to evolutionary relationships. No list will be completely satisfactory. Authorities differ in what they consider a phylum, and in the actual name of the phylum. Despite this, there is agreement on most phyla. Most modern surveys include groups above the phylum superphyletic groupings based on evidence of common descent. Animals in the Phylum Chordata include the vertebrates and some of the more primitive nonvertebrates like the protochordates, lancelets, acorn worms, tunicates, and the pterobranchs. The first vertebrates appearing in the fossil record during the Cambrian age were animals that resembled fishes and had respiratory gills formed by pharyngeal gill slits located in a set of pouches. The first purpose of the skeleton and scales were to protect the animal, to add support to the notochord, and to keep the brain protected. Jawless fish lived from the Late Cambrian until the end of the Devonian period. These fish were covered in bony armor, an adaptation that helped protect them from other animals. Parasitic lampreys and deep-sea hagfish are descended from the weak swimming, bottom dwelling jawless fish. Later in the Middle Silurian, a fish with jaws and teeth, known as the vertebrate, evolved.
- What role does the marine wildlife and nature play in your life? The role marine wildlife and nature plays in my life is seeing a different part of how other things live on this Earth. Just to try and understand and interact with the marine nature is really interesting. I like to snorkel and scuba dive, so marine life has a huge impact on my life, being able to swim with different types of creatures and seeing how they life. Knowing that most of them are harmless creatures, it is easier to adapt to their environment. Marine life is also a very beautiful thing, it is important to our ecosystem, and also important to me. Seeing different types of creatures that are in danger, makes me want to help even more, and enforce others the help.
- How does the use of marine resources impact you on a personal level? Marine resources impact me on a personal level, because I love to swim with marine life and study it. I am constantly on water, whether it be a boat, surfboard, jet ski, or just swimming in the ocean, I am constantly interacting with marine resources. Also, marine resources give us different things to eat, trying new things to eat is also very important to me. It impacts me when I see marine life being in danger, because I wonder how us human would feel if that was us. We sometimes hurt these animals without even knowing for our pleasure to have shows, make money, and have fun, but it is not fun and games for these animals. They do not want to be kept up in a small space just for us humans to go see them.
- Specifically, what new thoughts do you have about marine resources and the way they are used by people? The new thoughts I have on marine resources are, they are being over used. It is not fair to these animals how people take them out of their environment and use them for show, make them do tricks, don’t feed them as much as they should be, and kept in such a small space for their life without having the whole open ocean to roam around in. They way humans interact with these marine resources is unfair, and should only be allowed to visit them when only when in their natural environment. These creatures are very unique and special to everyone, so we as humans need to take care of them and help them as much as we can.
- Give the kingdom, phylum, and class for the clam. Kingdom- Animalia ,Phylum- Mollusca ,Class- Bivalvia.
- Give several examples of species of clam. The smallest legally harvestable clams are called countnecks, next size up are littlenecks, then topnecks. Above that are the cherrystones, and the largest are called quahogs.
- What clam species is most commonly found in waters off the coast of Maine? Red tide.
- What is the mantle? What is its function? The mantle is the layer of epidermis closest to the shell, and it produces shell (same lining on shell makes pearls from particles that enter shell).
- What controls the opening and closing of the clam’s shell? The antior and postieor adductor muscles.
- How do clams move? A clam generally refers to a bivalve mollusk. They have a foot that allows for some amount of lateral movement. The foot is controlled by two muscles, the anterior and posterior foot muscles.
- How do clams feed? Clams feed by swinging tiny feelers on their gills when their shell is open. The feelers help to sweep tiny organisms from the surrounding water into the clam shell. The organisms are then siphoned into the stomach where they are digested.
- Why are clams called bivalves? Clams breathe through gills much like fish. On each side of the foot is a pair of large, thin, dual-purpose gills. Gill hairs flail the water so it loops through the clam’s body. The lashing hairs pull water into the hind end of the body, through the gill plates, and back out through the rear. The gills mine the watery matter as it passes by for oxygen and food. That’s how it breathes and eats with gills.
I was not in class for this clam project.
- What distinguishes this animal from others you have observed? It has a shell and no eyes.
- Can you observe any body symmetry? Describe it. The shell is the same on both sides.
- Compare the anatomy and organs of the clam with that of the annelid and yourself. The clam is less complex.
- What organs are present in both human and mollusc bodies? The heart.
- How is the heart connected to the respiratory organs? By the connection of intestines.
- How is the digestive system similar to yours? How is it different? They filter feed. Absorb nutrients.
1. Why arecoral reefs important,and whatarepossibleexplanationsforthe phenomenon known as coral bleaching?
On the surface, coral bleaching looks exactly like what you’re envisioning right now: white, bleached-out coral reefs, which is quite a departure from the colorful structures we all know and love.
-Coral reefs areone ofthe most biologicallyproductiveeco- systemsonEarth.Most peoplehave seen imagesofbrightly coloredfishesand otherreef-dwellingorganisms,yetmanydo not understand why these systems are personally important. Cyphastrea serailia and Pocillopora, damicornis were bleached in the light when water temperature was raised to 33°C for 3 h. We use the term ‘bleached’ in this context to mean that significant numbers of zooxanthellae were released from the coral host in comparison to controls at lower temperature. At 25°C few zooxanthellae could be sampled (60 cells ml–1 in the filtered supernatant), whereas after 3 h at 33°C the zooxanthellae density in the sampled water. The exact nature of this release is not fully understood. We use the term expelled zooxanthellae’ to describe the zooxanthellae that are released, to signify that there is probably a process of active expulsion by the host. Below 33°C there was no sign of bleaching, i.e. only a few zooxanthellae were released and these may have been senescent cells. Light was necessary for the bleaching to occur. However, we deliberately chose a rather low that still elicited bleaching because photoinhibition occurred at higher light levels.
-Symbiosis between polyps and zooxanthellae are common in corals. It is a mutualistic relationship (meaning both partners benefit from the interaction). The polyps are Cnidarians (same group as jellyfish). They lay down a calcified ‘skeleton’ and predate on small marine organisms using stings to catch prey. The zooxanthellae are basically a type of plankton that photosynthesis to produce energy from sunlight.
First, we saw the southern rock hopper penguin and we drew it. They behaved very well. It takes scientists about a few days to observe an animal and become an expert on every aspect on its behavior. When the animal met other animals, it responded well. The animal surprised me when they talked to each other. If I had observed for any shorter amount of time, I would not have seen the way they interact with each other. The Atlantic harbor seals move very fast and live in the outdoors part of the aquarium. The amazon rain forest helps for oxygen and is an important part of the ecosystem. The edge of the sea part of the aquarium, is where we saw things like, horseshoe crabs, starfish, snails, crabs, and more. The Pacific community reef is constructed with artificial coral because it is too full and crowded. The sea dragons live in the great barrier reef. The shark and ray touch tank was my favorite part of the trip. The coastal ecosystem the tank is designed to look like is a sandbar. It is low and shallow and very sandy and salty. I touched the stingray and it was very soft. The stingray is shaped the way it is because it is easier for it to sting, and its mouth is on the bottom making it easier to eat. In the giant ocean tank, the sea turtles are designed with large shells, making it easier for them to survive and protect themselves. The fish in this tank protect themselves by blending in and hiding in their surroundings. Overall, the trip was very educational and interesting. The message we heard from the aquarium staff was to help keep our oceans clean.
Childhood is an important part of life that is a factor for development and motivation. The experience of making mistakes and fixing them to learn is through childhood. Only a child is open minded enough to undergo the kind of development he or she needs. In the book The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, Huck’s youth is an important factor in his moral education. This novel follows the adventures of a young boy named Huck, and a runaway slave who travel on a raft down the Mississippi river. Huck is a thirteen year old boy forced to survive on his own and come to his own conclusions about important things that happen in his life. Twain uses the motif of childhood to develop the theme of maturation and development in his main character Huck, in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Huck has to make choices and decisions for himself. Huck matures when he has to make his own decisions on stealing. He has this elaborate plan to steal money from the king, and came up with this plan all by himself. “No, there aint no good way but one. I got to steal that money, somehow; and I got to steal it some way that they won’t suspicion that I done it”(Twain,189). Huck has to be mature about this situation and find out a way that no one will think it was him that stole the money. “I’ll steal it, and hide it; and by-and-by, when I’m away down the river, I’ll write a letter and tell Mary Jane where it’s hid”(Twain,189). Huck hid this money in a coffin, and this is a big decision he has to make with hiding money in such an odd place. In order to pull putting the money in the coffin off, Huck does this in a mature way and he develops from this experience of coming up with a plan, following it, and pulling it off. Huck also made the decison to help Jim, a runaway slave, escape. Huck feels like he has stole Jim from his owner because everyone in the town are all talking about stealing peoples property. Along the way down the Mississippi river, Huck steals a lot of things, but this is a part of childhood. He develops when he knows which things will be useful to their journey of Jim escaping, like a canoe, and develops maturity through this.
Hucks encounters with society on the Mississippi river helps to mature him. On the start of hucks adventure, Huck comes in contact with slave traders. He sees the slave traders and thinks what they are doing is wrong. Huck debates with himself when the slave traders want to come over to speak with him. “Well, I just felt sick. But I says, I got to do it-I can’t get out of it. Right then, along comes a skiff with two men in it, with guns, and they stopped and I stopped”(Twain,102). Huck has a choice, either to sell Jim to the slave traders and recieve money from them, or keep Jim. Jim is Hucks friend and he wants to save him more than he needs money. Huck makes the decison to lie to the slave traders when they ask him who is on his raft. “What’s that, yonder? A piece of raft, I says. Do you belong to it? Yes, sir. Any men on it? Only one sir. Is your man white or black? I didn’t answer up prompt. I tried to, but the words wouldn’t come. I tried, for a second or two, to brace up and out with it, but I warn’t man enough-hadn’t the spunk of a rabbit. I see I was weakening; so I just give up trying, and up and says- He’s white”(Twain,102) Huck is debating with himself over if he should give in or save his friend. This helps Huck to develop because he is put on the spot with no time to think and it is a mature way for Huck to handle this type of situation.
Hucks final development of maturing is his understanding tat conning people is wrong.The duke and the king, being the con men that they are, decide to pretend and be the two missing brothers in attempt to steal the family’s money. Unfortunately for them, the Wilks are very likable young women, and Huck just can’t stand by and let the duke and king take the girls money. Huck starts to like Mary Jane, the oldest of the group. “I’d rather not tell you where I put it, Miss Mary Jane, if you don’t mind letting me off; but I’ll write it for you on a piece of paper, and you can read it along the road to Mr. Lothrop’s, if you want to. Do you reckon that’ll do? Oh, yes. So I wrote: I put it in the coffin. It was in there when you was crying there, away in the night. I was behind the door, and I was mighty sorry for you, Miss Mary Jane”(Twain,204). In the end, Huck realizes he has done wrong and wants to fix what he has messed up. Another way Huck matures is when he explains he hears shooting and noise the night of the escape and wanted to see the fun, so he goes out the window and down the lightning-rod on the side of the house, and from there he re-tells the story he had told earlier to Uncle Silas. Huck feels so guilty about causing Aunt Sally to worry that he decides not to sneak out and see how Tom is doing even though he wants to. Every time Huck tries to sneak off to check on Tom, he looks back and sees Aunt Sally sitting up with her candle burning and looking worried and he feels so guilty he goes back to his room via the lightning-rod. He swears to himself he will never do anything to cause Aunt Sally pain again. This shows how he is matured beacause he does not like the way they are conning the Wilks. Huck also developed by the way he reacted to Aunt Sally’s pain.
- Why are seaweeds assigned to the Protista rather than Plantae? Seaweed is a protist. Unlike plants, seaweed does not have a complex root and shoot system or specialized tissues to move water and nutrients. It can absorb water and nutrients through any tissue. Seaweed can also photosynthesize in all of its tissues rather than just the leaves.
- List, describe, and state the function of the four basic parts of a seaweed. Also, state the name for the entire seaweed body. There were several primary symbioses between eukaryotes and blue green algae. In one lineage, the photosynthetic organism lost much of its genetic independence and became functionally and genetically integrated as chloroplasts within the host cell. Modern chloroplasts, also called plastids, are bounded by two or more membranes, and most usually lie free in the cytoplasm.
- What are the most important ecological roles filled by seaweeds? Seaweeds play very important ecological roles in many marine communities. They are a food source for marine animals such as sea urchins and fishes, and are the nutritional base of some food webs. They also provide shelter and a home for numerous fishes, invertebrates, birds, and mammals.
- List several types of environmental stress seaweeds encounter. These primary influences act with others to change marine plant biodiversity, which includes the number of marine species, their abundances and their genetics. In turn, marine plant biodiversity is known to influence ecosystem functions, such as food web support and mineral cycles.
- Briefly describe sexual and asexual reproduction in seaweed. Seaweeds reproduce in a variety of ways. Lower types reproduce asexually. More advanced kinds produce motile zoospores that swim off, anchor themselves, and grow into new individuals, or they reproduce sexually by forming sex cells (gametes) that, after fusing, follow the same pattern. Sometimes pieces of a seaweed break off and form new plants; in a few species there is a cycle of asexual and sexual reproduction foreshadowing the alternation of generations characteristic of plants.
- Upon what characteristic are seaweeds classified? Seaweeds are classified into three major groups; the green algae, the brown algae, and the red algae. Placement of seaweed into one of these groups is based on the pigments and colouration existing in the plant. Other seaweed features that are used to classify algae include: cell wall composition, reproductive characteristics, and the chemical nature of the photosynthetic products. Plant structure, form and shape are additional characteristics used to classify seaweed.
ALgan and Fucans
ranges from single-celled forms to multi-cellular sheets, and branched filaments
chlorophyll, phycocyanin and phycoerythri
Cold oceanic waters
Only about 10% of green algae are marine species, most live in freshwater.
food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and in the sciences.
Introduction: Photosynthesis is the process whereby plants using light energy from the sun convert carbon dioxide and water to glucose sugar and oxygen gas through a series of reactions. The overall equation for photosynthesis is
carbon dioxide + water =light energy=> glucose + oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O =light energy=> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Add a pinch of baking soda to the water in the test tube. Cut elodea stems at an angle and use your fingers to crush the end of the stem. The water in the beaker is meant to absorb the heat from the light. Phenol red is used as an indicator for a base. With excess carbon dioxide the solution becomes acidic and the phenol red will be yellow; as the carbon dioxide is removed the solution becomes more basic, turning back to red.
Photosynthesis Experiment: Remove the elodea from your test tube and rinse to remove any sodium bicarbonate from the plant and the test tube. Place dilute phenol red in the test tube. Use a straw to bubble breath into the tube until the solution turns yellow. Place the tube in from of the lamp, observe the tube and note any changes in color. After gathering data on the color change, reset your test tube back to yellow and then cover it in foil. Store this overnight and check the color the next day.
Carbon Dioxide Experiment: Phenol red is used as an indicator for a base. With excess carbon dioxide the solution becomes acidic and the phenol red will be yellow; as the carbon dioxide is removed the solution becomes more basic, turning back to red.
Conclusion: Overall, This project had an impact on me because it was very informational and helped us to see how photosynthesis looks and watch it happen.
The Cambrian time period from 500 to 600 million years ago was also known as the Cambrian explosion. The Ordovician time period from 490 to 500 million years ago was found through the study of whales. The Devonian period was 405 to 560 million years ago and was the time of the evolution of sharks. The carboniferous period was 290 to 560 million years ago and was a time of large dragonflies. The Triassic period was 250 to 290 million years ago was when 90 percent of the worlds species died off. The Jurassic time was 140 to 210 million years ago and was a time of pangea when it was drifting apart. The cretaceous period was 65 to 140 million years ago and was a time of warm blooded mammals. The tertiary time period was 2 to 65 million years ago and was the time of the deep freeze known as thee ice age. This project was a very useful activity used to learn a lot about different time periods. I gained knowledge of how we came to be through all the years of different species. My contribution was organized and very helpful.