Of all the articles I read, the article that provides the most accurate and unbiased story is “Phytoplankton Population Drops 40 Percent Since 1950”. The story that was being told in 2010 is “Critical Ocean Organisms Are Disappearing”. The story being told in 2013 is “Phytoplankton Will Suffer As Oceans Warm”. The concern about phytoplankton populations for all articles is the growth of population. There is consequences on fish and other species that depend on it. The phytoplankton populations are measured by the identification of a connection between long term global declines of biomass and increasing ocean temperatures. The conflicts are about 1 percent of the global average declining per year. This affects people by turning co2 and sunlight into energy. I think that these articles are very accurate. They all are very informative and tell us about phytoplankton and what worse things could happen and result from this decrease.
a. The relationships in this design depended on each other to survive and if one died off or did not exist anymore another species would go extinct. Each different species would depend on a different organism and would not be living without it. Each ecosystem would be effected in all different ways depending on which organism died off. Our class activity was fun and educating, as well as informational and gave a visual. We got to interact and really got to see which specific organism would go extinct.
a. This plankton is very important to marine food webs because it starts off the food web. There are many organisms that are in the neuston ecosystem and it covers most of the earths surface. You are able to see this plankton from up in space. Diatomaceous earth is a soft crumbly porous sedimentary deposit formed from the remains of diatoms. Light reflection is caused by a mirror from bouncing off the mirror again. The diatoms stay at the surface and collect and absorb the light. They have to absorb nutrients and release them when they die. They distribute and abundance of phytoplankton and also why many marine organisms migrate to follow this food source. They are very beautiful and surprisingly useful. Their shells put the glitter in reflective paint and also used in filters as abrasives in toothpaste and as natural pesticide in diatomaceous earth.
“In ecology, energy flow, also called the calorific flow, refers to the flow of energy through a food chain. In an ecosystem, ecologists seek to quantify the relative importance of different component species and feeding relationships.”
“Humans can affect the ecosystem, by pollution, waste dumping, over hunting of animals, over-fishing, industrial gasses, and energy use, and by not using bio degradable products.”
During this class of oceanography, I have learned a lot. Oceanography Studies was fantastic and overall an amazing class. Through this course I realized the vast variety of topics researchers and oceanographers face when considering the vast territory it covers. An oceanographer is a person who studies the ocean and the plant and animal life it contains. There are four different branches dealing with oceanography. They include: biological oceanographers, geological oceanographers, marine scientists, and physical oceanographers. One of the first assignments we ever did in the class, was learning the explorers. We did a project on one specific explorer that we got assigned to and made a poster online. During this project, I learned the ancient Polynesians belonged to a stone age culture. They crossed the Pacific Ocean without compass or sextant. To the first Europeans to encounter Polynesian settlements, this seemed impossible. They were therefore forced to explain how a heathen, primitive group of people managed to spread throughout the Pacific islands, establishing colonies that were separated by thousands of miles of ocean — all before the first European had even laid eyes on the Pacific Ocean. We presented this to the class. I learned a lot from doing this project and how much my explorer really influenced the oceanography world. Along with projects, we did a lot of bookwork. Every week we did sets of questions in our oceanography book, this really helped me by understanding what we did in class that week. After taking a quiz on explorers, we moved topics to underwater technology. This really helped me to understand how oceanographers work and how they explore our oceans. We learned how they work underwater. With this in mind, we had to create our own underwater habitat. This was a creative and fun project. We worked in groups and had to present our finished object. It helped me to really understand what life could be like as an oceanographer. Next we moved to ocean navigation. This was very interesting, and we did a lot of labs on this topic. Next, we learned about sand, and how different sand is depending on where in the ocean it is located in. The sand when your walking on it looking at it at the same from a distance it looks soft, but up close its rough and its hard with sharper edges. At first I didn’t know where these sands were from because they all looked similar from a far, but under the microscope you could see the differences. Beaches with high-energy waves may contain very little sand. Sand that is present in this type of environment is typically rounded in shape. Lower-energy environments such as beaches with gentle waves can accumulate more sand. Sand grains along calm beaches may have a more angular shape.My favorite project was constructing our own island. We had to be careful of wild life but also build enough things on the island for people to live. This really helped me understand how important our oceans and the life around them are and to not damage them. Next, we learned about winds, hurricanes, moons/tides, and how its all connected. The Sun’s gravity pulls ocean water toward the Sun, but at the same time, the centrifugal force of the combined Earth and Sun revolution causes water on the opposite side of Earth to bulge away from the Sun. The effect is smaller than the Moon, even given the greater mass of the Sun greater mass means greater gravitational force. The Sun is so far away almost over 380 times farther away from the Earth than the Moon. Because the tides are influenced by the Moon and the Sun, it’s easy to see that when the Sun lines up with the Moon and the Earth, as during a New Moon or Full Moon the tidal effect is increased. Everything done in oceanography this semester was very useful to me and I did learn a lot of information in this class.
What are the chemical properties of seawater? Approximately 3.5 percent of seawater is composed of dissolved compounds, while the other 96.5 percent is pure water. The chemical composition of seawater reflects such processes as erosion of rock and sediments, volcanic activity, gas exchange with the atmosphere, the metabolic and breakdown products of organisms, and rain.
We started with doing four activities.
Activity one: Four labeled graduated cylinders, one with a marine sample, a second with a brackish sample, a third with a lake (aquatic) sample, and a fourth with a sample of local tap water. Four labeled 50 ml beakers each with water samples similar to the graduated cylinders. Eyedroppers should be in each of the beakers. Four hydrometers, A refractometer 2-liter bottles that have water samples from unknown salinity sources. The water samples will be supplied by either the teacher or are samples that you collected and have brought in. Squirt-bottle with tap water for rinsing.
Activity two: Four 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flasks with specific salinity water samples labeled as 20‰, 25‰, 30‰, and 35‰., 250 or 500 ml graduated cylinders, 500 ml beakers, Hydrometers, Refractometers, Hot plates, Eyedroppers, Ice, Shallow tray or pan for use as an ice bath container.
Activity three: The data were compiled by a conductivity-temperature-depth profile in the North Atlantic at approximately 20 latitude. Plot the data given by the profile in the data collection area for Station 3. Draw a line connecting all points in order of depth. Use the Water Mass Characteristics Chart on the next page to identify the major water masses represented in the diagram you just plotted. There are three distinct water masses in this water profile. Find them by looking for abrupt changes in the angle of the curve. Use the water mass characteristics to identify the major water masses represented in your diagram, and indicate where the water mass originated from. Enter the water masses on the diagram in the data collection area for Station 3.
Activity four: Observation statement: Offer an explanation as to what is causing the changes in salinity as the sample sites change. We had to record each crossing of the isolating contour lines by referencing the latitude and salinity value.
Analysis of Results:
Station 1: An Introduction to Ocean Salinity
- Contrast the differences between brine, marine, brackish, lake (aquatic), and local tap water types based on salinity. Provide examples of where you find these water types. A pond, ocean, lake, pool, rain.
- The average ocean salinity is 35‰ but there are areas higher or lower than this value. Name three oceanic locations that would differ from the average and explain what causes the variation to occur. North and south poles, pacific and Atlantic
- Contrast the principles behind how a hydrometer and how a refractometer measure salinity. Difference is it is more precise.
- Explain how the temperature of the water affects the salinity. The hotter it is, the more salt it loses.
- Which salinity-measuring tool would be easier to use in the field? The hydrometer.
Station 2: The Effects of Temperature, Density, and Salinity
- From examination of your Station 2 plots, which seemed to have a greater effect on the density of water, temperature or salinity? Explain. The salinity because it made the water more dense for the object to float.
- From the third graph plot of Station 2 (T-S Diagram), can the salinity stay the same while the temperatures and densities change? Explain. Yes, this is because the temp doesn’t control the density.
Station 3: Water Mass Identification Using T-S Diagrams
- In the CTD profile you plotted, the deepest water had the lowest salinities. Explain how this is possible. Hint: Remember that more than salinity affects water density. The deeper, the harder it is for the salinity can reach.
- Normally you find high salinities at the surface of the water, especially in samples taken closer to the equator. Explain. The salt is being pulled closest to the center because of magnitude.
- Why would scientists be interested in identifying specific water masses? They are so different all around the earth.
Station 4: Factors affecting Salinity
- Examine the transect line and your plotted graph and explain what causes the salinity changes from the equator to the Bering Sea in the Arctic Circle. he currents affect the trail of how much salt is and where its brought to.
- Research what other factors can alter the salinities in the ocean from its average of 35‰. The colder the water.
Conclude and Communicate:
- Write two new research questions based on what you have learned from this activity. Where in the world is there more salinity? Why is there more salinity in the center of the earth?
- The value and importance of this activity:
- What is the unique chemistry of seawater, how is it measured, what is its consistency and what are its physical characteristics? Processes as erosion of rock and sediments, volcanic activity,
- Why would scientists be interested in the inorganic chemistry of water? This is because there is different varieties of salinity all around the world.
Solution Tested Hydrometer Reading
-No salt -o
-1cup salt – -.5
-2cup salt – -1
-3cup salt – -1.5
1. The term salinity is the amount of salt
2. If you add salt to a water solution the hydrometer will lower in the water, because it was more dense.
3. The effect that the addition of salt has on properties of water is it makes the salinity levels higher.
4. It is easier to float in a pool because of ocean has more salt than a pool.
5. The term density is a ratio of the amount mass per unit volume.
6. The salinity of seawater is also affected by the temperature of a body of water. The temperature causes differences in the salinity of water because when its nit, the molecules of the salt start to have more and multiply.
The Sun’s gravity pulls ocean water toward the Sun, but at the same time, the centrifugal force of the combined Earth and Sun revolution causes water on the opposite side of Earth to bulge away from the Sun. The effect is smaller than the Moon, even given the greater mass of the Sun greater mass means greater gravitational force. The Sun is so far away almost over 380 times farther away from the Earth than the Moon. Because the tides are influenced by the Moon and the Sun, it’s easy to see that when the Sun lines up with the Moon and the Earth, as during a New Moon or Full Moon the tidal effect is increased. These are known as spring tides, which means that the water springs higher than normal. If the Sun and the Moon are 90 degrees apart in relation to an observer on Earth as during the First Quarter Moon or Third Quarter Moon called half moons, then high tides are not as high as they normally would be. This is because despite its greater distance, the Sun’s mass allows it to exert enough gravitational force on the oceans that it can change some of the effects of the Moon’s pull. This is because of the lower high tides is called a neap tide. On our graphs we put the high tides and low tides on the bottom part of the graph, showing the higs and lows. On the top, we did the moon pattern, with helped us to see when the moon is at a specific state, what the tide was during this time.
Where I Lived and What I Lived For: Notes:
- Thoreau identifies his location, Walden Pond, as being a pond and a mile and a half from Concord. It was within walking distance of civilization, but to him it’s was unexplored corner of the universe.
- He explains that he chose this place because he wished to live deliberately to simplify everything in his life to the necessities so that he could really live.
- Right now, the world moves too quickly; he wants to slow down and really enjoy life.
- To understand what is wonderful about life, you don’t have to go off into distant corners of the earth.
- Newspapers never tell us anything new, according to Thoreau. He wants to dig through the mud and slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance to get to reality.
“Let us settle ourselves, and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance, that alluvion which covers the globe, through Paris and London, through New York and Boston and Concord, through church and state, through poetry, philosophy and religion, till we come to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality”(pg.234)
-Prejudice and opinion aren’t literally made out of mud, but, by comparing them to mud, we get a sense of how difficult it can be to get past them.
-This is symbolic to transcendentalism by making it easier to understand the nature of reality, and examine and analyze the reasoning process that governs the nature of experience.
-Metaphor(mud and slush of opinion) means that we have to go through all different obstacles until we realize that this is reality.
Brute Neighbors: Notes:
- Thoreau begins this chapter by saying that a companion had come by and invited him fishing.
- He then imagines a short dialogue between a hypothetical Hermit and Poet.
- Thoreau thinks about his animal neighbors, including mice and various species of birds.
- He also catches some ants battling it out ferociously. For him, this battle seems as epic as anything in the Napoleonic Wars or even the American Revolution. Considering the millions of people who died in these wars.
- On the lake, Thoreau plays a game of chase with a loon, who cunningly swims away just far enough so that Thoreau can’t catch him. He says that ducks do the same to the hunters. He states that animals are crafty.
“But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, which has them not, is rich as a savage? … the cost of a thing is the amount of what I will call life which is required to be exchanged for it, immediately or in the long run.”(pg.235)
-Thoreau questions whether civilization is all that great if so many people still remain poor.
-The symbolic connection to transcendentalism by telling the reader that the poor is the rich, even though they do not the things that the civilized man has, they appreciate the things they have without having much. Just because your rich and you have things, doesn’t mean you appreciate them anymore.
-The metaphors in this quote is when he says the cost of a thing is the amount of what he calls life. This is a metaphor because life does not cost anything, but it is so un replaceable that it is almost as if it would cost everything in the world.
The Pond In Winter: Notes:
- Thoreau goes to the frozen ice and chops open a small square. Through the hole, he can see fish, mostly pickerel fish swimming around below.
- He is determining how deep the pond is in various spots. He discovers that it’s the deepest where the line of greatest length where the pond is longest and the line of greatest part where the pond is widest intersect. He wonders if a man’s character can be measured the same way.
- Some ice cutters believe that there is a leach hole basically a drain at the bottom of the pond that leads to a nearby meadow.
- Thoreau also observes how the ice changes its structure as the environment around it changes.
- Thoreau observes more this time and it is the ice cutters, who cut blocks of ice from Walden Pond to ship around the world, even as far as India.
“Not till we are lost, in other words, not till we have lost the world, do we begin to find ourselves, and realize where we are and the infinite extent of our relations.”(pg.237)
-The author feels that he has to abandon the world, including human society, in order to discover himself.
-This quote connects to the symbolism of transcendentalism by how the author expressing transcendentalism through if we knew all the laws of nature. Only one natural fact or something unusual would allow us to understand the whole. But knowledge of nature’s laws is not good. He explains from the pond to humankind, using the scientific way of a guys height or depth of character from his own circumstances.
-This quote also has the metaphor of when he states, not till we have lost the world. This is a metaphor because you can not lose a world, but instead lose touch with what is happening in it. He uses this to emphasis how you have to find yourself before being involved in the world.
- Thoreau notices that the ice on the pond is very different to the shifts in temperature.
- There was an old local who decided to go duck hunting at Walden Pond. He decided to hide and wait for ducks and he thought he heard the sound of a lot of birds landing on the pond. It was just the melting ice plates rubbing against the shore.
- He enjoys the sight of melting sand, which turned into shapes when they melt. He wonders if like melting sand and clay human beings could change also.
- He says the spring was a sudden burst of things like birds, squirrels, frogs, and turtles.
- In May when more kinds of birds make their appearance, and the pine trees cover the earth with their pollen.
- The author leaves Walden on September 6 1847.
“As every season seems best to us in its turn, so the coming in of spring is like the creation of cosmos out of chaos and the realization of the golden age.”
-According to greek and roman myths the creation was followed by the golden age, which was a time of peace, happiness, and innocence.
-This quote is connected to transcendentalism by how he is suppose to connect with nature and believe that every season is the best. As it connects to the golden age, you are suppose to be happy, innocent, and create peace with the world.
– On april 29 he observes a hawk dancing in the sky, which is an example of personification. This is personification, because birds don’t dance.
-The simile in this passage was when the author connects spring to the golden age, when he says spring is like the creation of the golden age.
- Thoreau explains that you don’t have to explore far away lands when you are an undiscovered country that you can discover through thought.
- He wanted to discover other ways of living even though he knows that he doesn’t want to live in the world. He learned from his own experience that the more you make your own life easier, the clearer you can see the laws of life.
- He relates the story of an artist from the city of Kouroo, who found out that ages had passed.
- Thoreau lives for truth and simplicity. He doesn’t think people should be so quick to make everything newer, when people still have to learn themselves.
- He tells the story of an insect that hatched from an egg that had been buried in the wood of a farmer’s table for years.
“However mean your life is, meet it and live it; do not shun it and call it hard names. It is not so bad as you are. It looks poorest when you are richest.”
-This quote means to love your life no matter if you are rich or poor. It is only as good as you make it, it will not hurt you unless you choose to do something bad to it.
-The quote connects to transcendentalism by telling the reader that you don’t need money to make you happy, and just to enjoy nature like humans used to live turning the transcendentalism time period. He is telling the reader that all you need it right there in front of you, “nature” and you shouldn’t need to ask for much more.
-The metaphor in this statement is when he states to meet your life and live it, you can not really meet your life, but what he is trying to say is to find yourself and love what you have and enjoy what surrounds you.
Part A: Tracing Pathways
1. Wind patterns greatly influence the currents in Oceans. The reason is because the wind pushes up against the water and constantly pushes the waves in that direction.
2. Water is constantly moving on the Earth. Water off the shore of California is usually a lot colder because it is being pushed from up towards Alaska toward the equator. And water from the Equator is pushed either North East or it is pushed down south.
3.It is warmer on the equator because of the angle the sun light hits it. It is stronger there than any other part of the globe.
4. The ocean near port augusta passes through spencer gulf, gulf st vincent, investigator strait, encounter bay, then back out to the pacific ocean.
6. A. The wind goes in a circular patteren, and rotates around from east to west over port augusta. B. Anything that was dropped off from port agusta will be brought right back because of the wind pattern being circular pattern. C. When the wind goes through port agusta, it heads towards western australia. D. Yes, it is the same because of the way it is going around. E. The winds thatcome into this port are cold winds brought up from the south poles, F. The water will be brining in cold air and also cold water. G. These waters will flow towards the south inro the south poles. H. it might be carrying out the warm water and bringing in cold water and air.
- The prevailing winds play the most effective role in setting the currents in motion. Wind-driven horizontal circulation in the surface waters of the oceans is induced as a result of the stress which the winds exert on ocean water.
- Is any large system of rotating, particularly those involved with large wind movements. Gyres are caused by the; planetary along with horizontal and vertical friction, which determine the circulation patterns from the wind curl.
- The currents flow in the opposite direction of the correolis effect.
- Part of Ekman motion theory first investigated in 1902 by , is the term given for the 90° net transport of the surface layer the layer affected by wind by wind forcing. This phenomenon was first noted by a person who recorded that ice transport appeared to occur at an angle to the wind direction during his during the 1890s.The direction of transport is dependent on the hemisphere: in the, transport occurs at 90° clockwise from wind direction, while in the it occurs at a 90° counterclockwise.
- The Coriolis Effect and the prevailing wind directions which are westward near the tropics and eastward near the polar fronts. It then makes sense that the oceanic currents are stronger on the periphery and weaker in the middle since they tend to spin around the ocean.
- Is an oceanic flow in which the force is balanced by the effect. The direction of geostrophic flow is parallel to the, with the high pressure to the right of the flow, and the high pressure to the left. This concept is familiar from weather maps, whose isobars show the direction of geostrophic flow in the atmosphere.
- Are warm, deep, narrow, and fast flowing currents that form on the west side of ocean basins due to western intensification. They carry warm water from the tropics poleward.
- Ocean basins generally have a non-symmetric surface current, in that the eastern equatorward-flowing branch is broad and diffuse whereas the western poleward-flowing branch is very narrow. These western boundary currents (of which the gulf stream is an example) are a consequence of basic fluid dynamics.
- Upwelling and downwelling influence sea-surface temperature and biological productivity. Upwelling waters may originate below the pycnocline and are therefore colder than the surface waters they replace. Sometimes upwelling waters are confined to the mixed layer depending on the thickness of the warm layer. You may have experienced upwelling at the beach on a windy day when the warm surface water was blown offshore and replaced by chilly water from below.
- Convection is heat transfer by mass motion of fluid when heated fluid is caused to move away from source of heat, carrying energy with it. Hot water is less dense than cold water and rises, causing convection currents which transport energy.
- Western coast of South America and can cause climatic changes across the Pacific Ocean. There is a phase of ‘El Niño–Southern Oscillation, which refers to variations in the temperature of the surface of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean El Niño and La Niña and in air in the tropical western Pacific. The two variations are coupled: the warm oceanic phase, El Niño, accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific, while the cold phase, accompanies low air surface pressure in the western Pacific.
- Refers to a part of the large-scale circulation that is driven by global density created by surface heat and freshwater. The adjective thermohaline derives from thermo- referring to temp and -haline referring to salt factors which together determine the density. Wind-driven surface currents such as the gulf travel polewards from the equatorial ocean cooling en route, and eventually sinking at high lattitudess storming deep water.
- The 4 interconnected currents in the North Atlantic Gyre are the: Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Current, Canary Current, North Equatorial Current. Each of these currents has different flow characteristics and temperatures.
- The water masses of the ocean form in the currents and the tempature of the the ocean water and how much salt is in it.
- The general patteren of the circulation comes from the polar sides of the earth and the way its tilted.
- The ocean belt is The ocean is not a still body of water. There is constant motion in the ocean in the form of a global ocean conveyor belt. This motion is due to thermohaline currents. Cold, salty water is dense and sinks to the bottom of the ocean while warm water is less dense and rises to the surface.
1. the tools and techniques available to study the process of host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites and we provide specific examples of how these methods have been used to further our understanding of apicomplexan invasive mechanisms. Throughout the chapter we focus our discussion, because T. gondii is the most experimentally accessible model organism for studying apicomplexan invasion discussed further in the section.
2. is the investigation of physical, conditions on the for or purposes. Deep-sea is considered as a relatively recent human activity compared to the other areas of research, as the depths of the sea have been investigated only during comparatively recent years. The ocean depths still remain as a largely unexplored part of the , and form a relatively undiscovered domain.
Earth is heated unevenly. This is because of the fact that the Earth is a sphere. Also, Earth is tilted about 23 degrees. Light rays are hitting different places at different strengths. Near the equator the temperature is warm and also humid. At the poles, the weather is mostly really cold. This is due to light rays also but in a different way. Angled light rays are weaker rays that their paths are changed because of clouds and also reflected off of Earth. The straight light rays are stronger and they make places on the earth warmer. What I learned from the “Global Wind Patterns” activity is that light rays are affected by clouds and the Earth reflecting light. Earth’s rotation affects the movement of air and water masses. This happens because of the Coriolis affect, and this affect is the deflection of moving objects. Global wind patterns are divided into several sections. Polar easterlies are at about 60-90 degrees, and they blow irregularly from the east and the north. Westerlies are at about 30-60 degrees and they blow from the north and from the west. Horse Latitudes are where the westerlies meet trade winds at about 30 degrees. This region has a lot of high pressure and it is extra dry. Lastly, trade winds are about 30 degrees south and they blow from the northeast towards the equator.