1. ImageGive the kingdom, phylum, and class for the clam. Kingdom- Animalia ,Phylum- Mollusca ,Class- Bivalvia.
  2. Give several examples of species of clam. The smallest legally harvestable clams are called countnecks, next size up are littlenecks, then topnecks. Above that are the cherrystones, and the largest are called quahogs.
  3. What clam species is most commonly found in waters off the coast of Maine? Red tide.
  4. What is the mantle? What is its function? The mantle is the layer of epidermis closest to the shell, and it produces shell (same lining on shell makes pearls from particles that enter shell).
  5. What controls the opening and closing of the clam’s shell? The antior and postieor adductor muscles.
  6. How do clams move? A clam generally refers to a bivalve mollusk. They have a foot that allows for some amount of lateral movement. The foot is controlled by two muscles, the anterior and posterior foot muscles.
  7. How do clams feed? Clams feed by swinging tiny feelers on their gills when their shell is open. The feelers help to sweep tiny organisms from the surrounding water into the clam shell. The organisms are then siphoned into the stomach where they are digested.
  8. Why are clams called bivalves? Clams breathe through gills much like fish. On each side of the foot is a pair of large, thin, dual-purpose gills. Gill hairs flail the water so it loops through the clam’s body. The lashing hairs pull water into the hind end of the body, through the gill plates, and back out through the rear. The gills mine the watery matter as it passes by for oxygen and food. That’s how it breathes and eats with gills.

I was not in class for this clam project.

  1. What distinguishes this animal from others you have observed? It has a shell and no eyes.
  2. Can you observe any body symmetry? Describe it. The shell is the same on both sides.
  3. Compare the anatomy and organs of the clam with that of the annelid and yourself. The clam is less complex.
  4. What organs are present in both human and mollusc bodies? The heart.
  5. How is the heart connected to the respiratory organs? By the connection of intestines.
  6. How is the digestive system similar to yours? How is it different? They filter feed. Absorb nutrients.

Clam Report

  1. Why are seaweeds assigned to the Protista rather than Plantae? Seaweed is a protist. Unlike plants, seaweed does not have a complex root and shoot system or specialized tissues to move water and nutrients. It can absorb water and nutrients through any tissue. Seaweed can also photosynthesize in all of its tissues rather than just the leaves.
  2. List, describe, and state the function of the four basic parts of a seaweed. Also, state the name for the entire seaweed body. There were several primary symbioses between eukaryotes and blue green algae. In one lineage, the photosynthetic organism lost much of its genetic independence and became functionally and genetically integrated as chloroplasts within the host cell. Modern chloroplasts, also called plastids, are bounded by two or more membranes, and most usually lie free in the cytoplasm.
  3. What are the most important ecological roles filled by seaweeds? Seaweeds play very important ecological roles in many marine communities. They are a food source for marine animals such as sea urchins and fishes, and are the nutritional base of some food webs. They also provide shelter and a home for numerous fishes, invertebrates, birds, and mammals.
  4. List several types of environmental stress seaweeds encounter.  These primary influences act with others to change marine plant biodiversity, which includes the number of marine species, their abundances and their genetics. In turn, marine plant biodiversity is known to influence ecosystem functions, such as food web support and mineral cycles.
  5. Briefly describe sexual and asexual reproduction in seaweed. Seaweeds reproduce in a variety of ways. Lower types reproduce asexually. More advanced kinds produce motile zoospores that swim off, anchor themselves, and grow into new individuals, or they reproduce sexually by forming sex cells (gametes) that, after fusing, follow the same pattern. Sometimes pieces of a seaweed break off and form new plants; in a few species there is a cycle of asexual and sexual reproduction foreshadowing the alternation of generations characteristic of plants.
  6. Upon what characteristic are seaweeds classified? Seaweeds are classified into three major groups; the green algae, the brown algae, and the red algae. Placement of seaweed into one of these groups is based on the pigments and colouration existing in the plant. Other seaweed features that are used to classify algae include: cell wall composition, reproductive characteristics, and the chemical nature of the photosynthetic products. Plant structure, form and shape are additional characteristics used to classify seaweed.
  7. Algae Type








    Specific Example

    Egregia menziesii

    Codium fragile

    Chondracanthus exasperatus


    ALgan and Fucans

     ranges from single-celled forms to multi-cellular sheets, and branched filaments

    coralline algae




    chlorophyll, phycocyanin and phycoerythri


    Cold oceanic waters

    Only about 10% of green algae are marine species, most live in freshwater.

    Deep water

    Human Uses

    food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and in the sciences.



    Useful Substances




Seaweed Lab


The electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table are graphed. The relationship of an element’s position on the periodic table to its atomic number is similar. Families or groups and periods on the periodic table all are simialr in many different ways. The periodic table to identifies the three classes of elements that are metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity to the reactivity of other elements in the table. Trends on the periodic table are ionization energy, electronegativity, and relative sizes of atoms and ions. So how do periodic trends relate to the electron structure of an element?

Reactivity of Halide Ions Lab Abstract